Known as the father of the modern rifle, engineer William Ellis Metford (October 4, 1824 – October 14, 1899) is best known for designing the Metford rifling used in the .303 calibre Lee-Metford and Martini-Metford service rifles in the late 19thCentury. Sometime around 1852 he carried out experiments with rifles at the long distance of 1,200 yards. About the end of that year he suggested a hollow-based bullet for the Enfield Rifle which was brought to the attention of the Committee on Small Arms in 1853 by Robert Pritchett, and adopted by them. Both at this time and afterwards, he made many experiments on alloys of lead, tin and antimony and on the changes in hardness which take place in them with time.
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